Forging Terms and Definitions: A-C

From Alloy steel forging to Cold heading
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Like other technical fields and engineering disciplines, forging technology has a language all its own. Knowing what these terms mean and how they are applied can be of enormous help in seeking quotations, specifying forged products over other alternatives, and understanding why forged components deliver superior performance over non-forged parts.

Alloy steel forging: alloy forging made from a steel containing additional alloying elements other than carbon (e.g.. Ni, Cr, Mo) to enhance physical and mechanical properties and/or heat-treat response.

Aluminum precision forging: A process which plastically deforms an aluminum alloy to a finished part shape in special dies.  Aluminum forging design considerations require little or no subsequent machining/processing, as a result of close forging tolerances, thin sections, small radii and minimum draft angles.

Bar: a section hot rolled from a billet to a round, square, rectangular, hexagonal or other shape with a cross-section less than 16 sq. in.

Billet: a semi-finished section (width <2X thickness), hot rolled from a metal ingot, generally having a cross-section ranging from 16 to 64 sq. in. Also applies to a hot-worked forged, rolled or extruded round or square.

Blank: raw material or forging stock from which a forging is made.

Bloom: same as a billet, but with a cross-sectional area greater than 36 sq. in.

Blocker-type forging: one with the general shape of the final configuration, but featuring a generous finish allowance, large radii, etc.

Carbon steel forging: forgings in carbon steel or a steel whose major alloying element, carbon, produces the resultant properties and hardness.

Close-tolerance forging: one held to closer-than-conventional dimensional tolerances.

Closed die forging: see impression die forging.

Coining: a post-forging process - on hot or cold parts - to attain closer tolerances or improved surfaces.

Cold-coined forging: one that is restruck cold to improve selected tolerances or reduce a specific section thickness.

Cold forging: various forging processes conducted at or near ambient temperatures to produce metal components to close tolerances and net shape. These include bending, cold drawing, cold heading, coining extrusion (forward or backward), punching, thread rolling and others.

Cold heading: plastically deforming metal at ambient temperatures to increase the cross-sectional area of the stock (either solid bar or tubing) at one or more points along the longitudinal axis.

Courtesy of Forging Industry Association

For more information about common forging terminology, visit the Forging Industry Association (FIA) website.

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